The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) could be a species of metallic wood-boring beetle native to East Asia, including China and therefore the Russian Far East.
First detected near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002, the beetle has spread to over 30 states and 5 provinces. it’s believed to possess entered the country on wooden packing materials from China within the early 1990s.
Populations of the emerald ash borer exist in Winnipeg (Manitoba); Sault St. Marie, the Algoma District and city (Ontario); provincial capital (Quebec); Halifax (Nova Scotia); Edmunston and as of August 2019, Oromocto (New Brunswick).
The bright metallic-green beetle could also be smaller than a dime, but it’s capable of taking down ash trees thousands of times its size. Adults are typically ½ inch long and ⅛ inch wide. Eggs are extremely small—approximately 1/25 inch—and are reddish-brown in colour. Larvae are white, flat-headed borers with distinct segmentation.
Most species of North American ash trees are very prone to this beetle, which has killed uncountable trees in Canada in forested and concrete areas. Up to 99% of all ash trees are killed within 8-10 years once the beetle arrives in a district. No North American natural predators, like woodpeckers, other insects or parasites are able to slow the spread of the emerald ash borer or keep trees from being killed by it, aided by the power of the emerald ash borer to fly and spread locally.
Ash trees are one in all the foremost valuable and abundant North American woodland trees: estimates of total number of ash trees within the us alone range between seven and nine billion. The emerald ash borer has destroyed 40 million ash trees in Michigan alone and tens of millions throughout other states and Canada. Small trees can die as soon joined to 2 years after infestation, while larger infested trees can survive for 3 to four years. Heavy infestations of larval borers speed up the devastation of formerly healthy trees.
Adults usually emerge in mid- to late-May from infestations to the trees during the previous year (earlier if the weather is warm), with females laying their eggs shortly after. The larvae bore into the tree and feed under the bark, leaving tracks visible underneath. The feeding disrupts the tree’s ability to move water and nutrients, leading to dieback and bark splitting.
Emerald Ash Borer Infestations
Emerald ash borer infestations cause significant ecological and economic impacts in forested and concrete habitats.
In forest habitats, losing the bulk of ash trees can affect tree species composition, natural forest succession, and nutrient cycling. Habitats also become more prone to invasion by exotic plants. After an infestation remaining beetles can kill new growth, jeopardizing forest recovery.
In urban areas, infestations have killed tens of thousands of ash trees planted in parks and along streets. Municipal governments are answerable for removing dead ash trees on urban land. Infested trees should be chemically treated or removed and replaced, which may be a major economic burden.
Losing urban canopy can increase homeowner heating/cooling costs and may affect people with health issues like respiratory illnesses.
There is ongoing work to avoid wasting ash trees. The us Department of Agriculture recommends the subsequent to assist manage this pest:
Contacting your local USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) office if you think that you’ve found an Emerald Ash Borer infestation. Find contact information for your local APHIS office at the USDA’s website.
Recording the world where you found the insect and taking photos of the insect alongside any damage.
Not moving firewood from your property or carrying it across state lines.
Buying firewood from local sources and burning it where you get it.
Research conducted by scientists at the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has greatly expanded what’s known about the emerald ash borer since it had been detected in 2002. This work included developing sampling and monitoring tools including pheromone-based traps and branch sampling for detecting new infestations; developing economic models to support higher cognitive process by urban foresters; conducting biological control research to introduce parasitic wasp species from the beetle’s native aim China and Russia into Canada; investigating a biological control that infects beetles with a present fungus, which then spreads to other beetles; developing the botanical insecticide TreeAzin.
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